In the second decade of the new millennium, digital media have become a natural part of our everyday lives. This is especially true for young people who have grown up in the era of the “mediatization of childhood” (Livingstone, 2014). They use smart phones, tablets, laptops and their various applications in a sophisticated manner, often in a more complex way than most adults do (Smahel et al., 2020, p. 8). Digital media allow them to seek information, to communicate, to express themselves, to play, to be creative, and – of course – to learn. In the process, various forms of digital youth cultures are established in an interplay with social, political, cultural, and societal contexts. Actually, this has to be seen as a long-term process, since ever new media offer specific forms of communication, provoke new practices and demand new competencies, as it is discussed in the theory of mediatization (Krotz, 2007). At this stage, many aspects concerning education become essential.
First, digital media themselves are learning objects. They represent new spaces for action (e.g. TikTok for creating and sharing videos), provoke new practices (like Instagram challenges), and provide chances as well as challenges.
Secondly, digital media are tools for education. Today, young people use social media platforms attached to their smartphones not only for fun, but also for keeping track of their obligations in relation to school.