Real-time multimedia information and entertainment services – specifically, streaming of digital video and audio content – account for the majority of today’s traffic in the Internet, and their amount and share of traffic are still growing. Users expect to generate, distribute, share, and consume any media content, anywhere, anytime, on any device, in high quality. For real-time media transmission over the open Internet, a major technical milestone certainly was the advent of the HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technique, resulting in standards like DASH, HLS, and CMAF. In terms of video coding, we are faced with a plethora of existing/deployed video coding formats already (i.e., AVC, HEVC, VP9, AV1) and even more are coming (i.e., VVC, maybe AV2) which results in a multi-codec HAS issue to be solved in the near future. This calls for a framework to enable optimal usage of multiple codecs within HAS deployments depending on the context conditions including encoding complexity, bandwidth constraints, decoding capabilities, and deployment costs. In this talk we will review state-of-the-art in video coding for large-scale HAS deployments as well as challenges ahead.