This Research Topic assembled contributions from authors with expertise in different specialties to provide further steps toward a new understanding of psychological science. This was motivated by various problems and obstacles that psychological research is facing today. Traditional paradigms often no longer do justice to the complexity of contemporary research questions. Many new findings in psychological science have not yet been integrated into the theory, methodology, and understanding of psychological phenomena, nor have adequate consequences been drawn from them. Therefore, this Research Topic focused not only on highlighting particular problems but, more importantly, also on discussing possible solutions. Key questions are to what extent we need to abandon the ideas of critical rationalism, to what extent we need to integrate methodological strategies from other disciplines, and to what extent we should focus on entirely new problem-solving strategies. The current Research Topic includes 15 articles from diverse regions of the world that have discussed these issues from multiple perspectives. Here, we briefly summarize these contributions to highlight the diversity of these contributions.